Google Docs spreadsheets provide several easy ways to type exponents and numbers in scientific notation. Here is a guide on the different methods along with tips for working efficiently with exponents and scientific notation in Google Sheets.

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## Typing Exponents in Google Sheets

There are three main ways to type exponents in Google Sheets:

### Using the Superscript Format

- Type the base number
- Highlight the number
- Go to Format > Text > Superscript
- Type the exponent

For example, to type 23, you would type 2, highlight it, make it superscript, then type 3 next to it.

You can also use the keyboard shortcut CTRL + . (period) after typing the base number to quickly apply superscript formatting.

### Using the ^ Symbol

- Type the base number
- Type ^
- Type the exponent

For example, to type 53, you would enter 5^3. The ^ symbol acts as an exponent operator.

### Using Google Sheets Formulas

You can use the POWER formula:

`=POWER(base, exponent)`

So to calculate 23, you would use `=POWER(2,3)`

which returns 8.

## Entering Numbers in Scientific Notation

To enter a number already in scientific notation:

- Type the number normally including the E for scientific notation

For example: 2.5E7 - The number will automatically format in scientific notation

To convert a number to scientific notation:

- Select the cell(s)
- Go to Format > Number > Scientific

The numbers will update to scientific notation.

You can adjust the number of decimal places displayed in the Format options.

## Tips for Working with Exponents and Scientific Notation

Here are some tips for efficiently using exponents and scientific notation in Google Sheets:

- Use cell formatting to your advantage. Format cells as plain text if you want to display exponents as regular text without applying superscripting.
- Reference cells containing exponents in formulas instead of typing the full exponent each time.
- Double check automatic conversions of large numbers to scientific notation to ensure the format is displaying the level of precision you need.
- Use the POWER formula for more complex exponents in formulas.
- Apply scientific notation at the sheet or workbook level to have it apply to all cells.
- Adjust the number of decimal places shown in scientific notation using the options in the Format menu.
- Turn off scientific notation for individual cells by changing the Number format to Plain text or applying a custom number format.

## Additional Examples

Here are some additional examples of typing exponents and scientific notation in Google Sheets:

### Exponents

- 52
- Method 1: Type 5, highlight, apply superscript, type 2
- Method 2: Type 5^2

- x3
- Method 1: Type x, highlight, apply superscript, type 3
- Method 2: Type x^3

- ab2
- Method 1: Type a, highlight, apply superscript, type b2
- Method 2: Type a^b2

### Scientific Notation

- 4.321E5
- 1.234E-9
- 2.13581E7

## Summary

Typing exponents and scientific notation in Google Sheets is straightforward once you know the different methods:

- Use superscripting, the ^ symbol, or the POWER formula for exponents
- Simply type the number in scientific notation or apply the Scientific number format
- Adjust options for decimal places and disabling scientific notation as needed

Leveraging cell formatting and referencing along with the tips provided here will allow you to work efficiently with exponents and scientific notation in Google Sheets.